References formatting

Special attention should be paid to the formatting of the list of references. Below are the recommendations that authors should follow when writing an article and before sending it to the journal.

The requirements for the formatting of literary sources used for citation in the article should be divided into two types: the sources cited in the introduction of your article, which justify the relevance, and the sources that you generally use when writing the work.

Sources cited in the introduction

In the Introduction section, an overview of the world's scientific publications is presented. It confirms the absence of a solution to the problem in literary sources and indicates predecessors on whose studies the work is based. The literature review should be a critical analysis of scientific papers not older than 3-5 years, published in journals with a high international reputation, 50% of which are foreign sources. This review is presented separately from the literature review, which is usually a separate section of the article, and must justify (motivate) the need for research carried out by the author of the article. From this review follows the formulation of the relevance of the research.

General list of sources used in the research

In the general list of references, it is recommended to include only references to scientific articles, monographs, book chapters, and other officially published major studies that are available to a wide range of English-speaking readers. The recommended volume of the list of references is at least 25 sources available to the reader. The list (at least 15) should be based on leading international journals indexed in Scopus or Web of Science.

Available publications are considered to be:

  1. Scientific publications included in the Scopus or Web of Science database.
  2. Scientific publications in English in peer-reviewed scientific publications that have the open access status when specifying a direct Internet link to the publication.
  3. Scientific publications in a non-English language in peer-reviewed scientific publications that have the status of open access and have English-language metadata (source name, article title, author data, abstract, keywords, list of cited literature) with a direct Internet link to the publication.

References to sources that are not accessible to the reader are allowed in exceptional cases.

The list of references does not include textbooks, teaching aids, lecture notes and other educational literature, articles and/or conference abstracts, as well as patents, electronic resources and regulatory and legislative acts of any country. All this is formatted as subscript bibliographic references directly in the text.

Self-citation. As part of the self-citation restriction, it is not recommended to have no more than 2-3 sources whose authors or co-authors are the authors of the submitted article.

Overall, it is recommended to adhere to the following: cited sources for the last 3-5 years – at least 10, foreign – at least 15, if the total number of positions in the list is 25. When increasing the amount of literature used by the authors, it is necessary to adhere to the characteristic ratio.

Requirements for the list formating

The quoted literature is given in the general list at the end of the article in the order of mentioning in the text. You must use the ElsevierHarvard (with titles) style. In the text, the citation is made in parentheses: (Author's last name, year). The article should contain references to all sources from the list of references. Sources included in the list of references, but not mentioned in the text, are excluded from the list.

It is necessary to prepare a list of references only in English.

We kindly ask you, when referring to a source, use its official metadata in both Cyrilic and Latin as indicated in the source.

It is highly appreciated to use DOI, if it is available.

For the correct format of References, we recommend using the free software Mendeley. The style for the English-language list of references can be set in the Mendeley Desktop. To do this, use the menu items View – Citation Stile – More Stiles – Get More Styles – Download – ElsevierHarvard (with titles) in Mendeley Desktop.

To use the program you need to install:

Important! If the publication has metadata only in Russian, then in the English-language list, use the transliteration of its name with the indication after it in square brackets [ ] of the translation of the name into English.

If the cited source has a DOI, its indication is mandatory.

Examples of reference list formating:

When making a list of references in English, do not use Cyrillic characters, especially those that are similar in spelling to Latin (а, А, В, е, Е, К, М, Н, о, О, р, Р, с, С, Т, у, х, Х).

  • article 

Abd Alla, S., Bianco, V., Tagliafico, L.A., Scarpa, F., 2020. Life-cycle approach to the estimation of energy efficiency measures in the buildings sector. Appl. Energy 264, 114745.

Alola, A.A., Akadiri, S.S., 2021. Clean energy development in the United States amidst augmented socioeconomic aspects and country-specific policies. Renew. Energy 169, 221–230.

Herath, H.S.B., 2019. Postauditing and Cost Estimation Applications: An Illustration of MCMC Simulation for Bayesian Regression Analysis. Eng. Econ. 64, 40–67.

Lerman, L.V., Gerstlberger, W., Ferreira Lima, M., Frank, A.G., 2021. How governments, universities, and companies contribute to renewable energy development? A municipal innovation policy perspective of the triple helix. Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 71, 101854.

Mitić, P., Kostić, A., Petrović, E., Cvetanovic, S., 2020. The Relationship between CO2 Emissions, Industry, Services and Gross Fixed Capital Formation in the Balkan Countries. Eng. Econ. 31, 425–436.

Østergaard, P.A., Duic, N., Noorollahi, Y., Mikulcic, H., Kalogirou, S., 2020. Sustainable development using renewable energy technology. Renew. Energy 146, 2430–2437.

  • book

Farr, J.V., Faber, I., 2018. Engineering Economics of Life Cycle Cost Analysis, 1st Editio. ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

  • conference paper

Rodionov, D., Mokeeva, T., Aliev, I., 2020. Development of an Optimization Model for the Formation of an Innovative Project Portfolio per Stages of the Life Cycle, in: Proceedings of the 2nd International Scientific Conference on Innovations in Digital Economy: SPBPU IDE-2020. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 1–5.